New Website Dedicated to Ring Selfies Provides All the Details So You Can Find Your ‘Ringspiration’

When Apple employee Steven Simon started looking for an engagement ring for his soon-to-be fiancé, Andrea, his online research proved to be more than frustrating. He called it “painful.”

Sites, such as Pinterest, had a great selection of engagement photos, but no details. Was he looking at a 1-carat cushion cut or a 1.5-carat round? How would a diamond of that size look on Andrea’s hand? What would be the best precious metal color to flatter her complexion?

With so many questions and few answers, Steven and Andrea set out to build a better mousetrap.

Introducing Sparkly (, a site dedicated solely to engagement ring selfies, where the founders invite you to “Find your ringspiration™.”

Sparkly presents a gallery-style board of user-posted ring selfies, but adds a slew of filtering options — the types seen on top e-commerce sites — so users can drill down to the ring of their dreams.

There are three main menu sections: Diamonds, Settings and Hands.

Within “Diamonds,” users can choose from 11 popular cuts, diamond sizes up to 15 carats, colors from D to W and clarities from Internally Flawless to I2.

The “Settings” category offers eight styles, five band features and three metal colors.

The “Hands” section is intended to offer the viewer a proportional, lifelike example of how a ring will look on a specific hand. In addition to being able to pick the carat weight of the diamond, users can also filter based on five skin tones, 15 nail colors and whether or not the ring is shown with a wedding band.

“There had to be a better way to see what a ring really looks like on a real hand, narrow down the faves, and somehow along the way hint to that special someone what you’d love… all the while keeping the proposal the surprise of the century,” the founders wrote on the Sparkly “About” page.

Once the user has narrowed down the search and selected her faves, she can share them with friends, family and her future fiancé. Brides-to-be are never notified when a groom-to-be peeks at the registry, thus preserving any potential surprise. A future site enhancement will allow users to select a ring and then “Shop This Look.”

And, of course, after the proposal, users are encouraged to return to Sparkly to show off their new engagements rings — along with all the details.

Credits: Screen captures via


Historic Donnersmarck Diamonds Expected to Fetch Up to $13.7 Million at Sotheby’s Geneva

A pair of fancy intense yellow diamonds steeped in history and weighing 82.47 carats and 102.54 carats, respectively, is expected to fetch up to $13.7 million at Sotheby’s Geneva next month. “The Donnersmarck Diamonds” were famously owned by La Païva, a Russian-born courtesan who ascended into French high society in the mid-1800s, eventually marrying Count Guido Henckel von Donnersmarck, one of Europe’s wealthiest men.

Sotheby’s announced that the two diamonds will be sold as a single lot. The larger of the two diamonds is cushion shaped and carries an SI1 clarity grade. The smaller one is pear shaped and boasts a VS2 clarity.

La Païva, also known as Countess Henckel von Donnersmarck (1819–1884), was said to be so enchanted by her diamonds that she insisted that the central staircase of her mansion in Paris — Hôtel de la Païva — be made of Algerian yellow marble to match their hue.

Noted David Bennett, Worldwide Chairman of Sotheby’s International Jewellery Division: “These stunning diamonds carry with them a fascinating story, full of romance and determination over adversity, which could have inspired some of the greatest novels and operas, from Manon Lescaut to La Traviata.”

Born Esther Lachman of a Russian family of modest means, La Païva arrived in Paris at the age of 18 to pursue her dreams. She was rapidly introduced to the city’s cultural and artistic circles by her lover, piano composer and pianist, Henri Herz. Among her close friends were composer Richard Wagner, conductor Hans von Bülow, poet Théophile Gautier and journalist Emile de Girardin.

In 1851, she married the Portuguese Marquis Albino Francisco de Araújo de Païva, an heir to two important Macao wholesale fortunes. That marriage would last only one day, but her nickname, La Païva, would last her lifetime.

A year later, she crossed paths with a 22-year-old Prussian industrialist and mining magnate, Count Guido Henckel von Donnersmarck. According to one account, she pursued him across Europe, pretending not to be interested in him, but always being at the same social events. A relationship ensued, and 19 years later, in 1871, the 42-year-old La Païva would receive an annulment from her one-day marriage and tie the knot with von Donnersmarck.

Among her wedding gifts was a triple-strand diamond necklace formerly owned by the deposed French empress, Eugénie. He also gifted her the twin baubles that would be known as The Donnersmarck Diamonds.

La Païva’s died in 1884 and The Donnersmarck Diamonds would remain in the Donnersmarck family for more than a century. They first appeared at a public auction in 2007, where the pair earned slightly less than $8 million at Sotheby’s. Now, 10 years later, Sotheby’s has the good fortune of presenting them once again. They will be previewed during a five-city tour, which started in Singapore and includes stops in Hong Kong, Taiwan, New York and Geneva.

The Donnersmarck Diamonds will be a featured lot at Sotheby’s Magnificent Jewels and Noble Jewels sale in Geneva on November 15.

Credits: Image of The Donnersmarck Diamonds courtesy of Sotheby’s. La Païva image [Public domain] via Wikimedia Commons.

Music Friday: A Heartbroken Gary Lewis Laments, ‘Who Wants to Buy This Diamond Ring?’

Welcome to Music Friday when we bring you golden oldies with jewelry, gemstones or precious metals in the title or lyrics. Today, Gary Lewis & the Playboys perform “This Diamond Ring,” a 1965 chart topper about a heartbroken young man desperate to sell a piece of precious jewelry that doesn’t shine for him anymore.

In the song, Lewis is stunned when his girlfriend returns her engagement ring and admits she’s been untrue. For him, the stone had symbolized something genuine, “like love should be,” and the ring reflected dreams that were coming true.

Lewis sings, “Who wants to buy this diamond ring? / She took it off her finger, now it doesn’t mean a thing / This diamond ring doesn’t shine for me anymore / And this diamond ring doesn’t mean what it meant before / So if you’ve got someone whose love is true / Let it shine for you.”

“This Diamond Ring” was released as the group’s first single in January of 1965 and quickly ascended to #1 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. The popularity of the song helped Gary Lewis & the Playboys to land a high-profile appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show and a touring gig with the Dick Clark Caravan of Stars. By the end of 1965, Gary Lewis was named Cash Box magazine’s “Male Vocalist of the Year,” beating out nominees Elvis Presley and Frank Sinatra. The group would go on to score seven Top-10 hits.

Lewis, who is still performing with his band at the age of 71, told that his biggest hit is often misinterpreted.

“A lot of people love ‘This Diamond Ring,’ but they think it’s a getting-together song,” he recounted. “They say to me, ‘Hey, we got married because of ‘This Diamond Ring.’ I say, ‘Really?’ I mean, it’s a breakup song.”

Despite the success of “This Diamond Ring,” songwriters Al Kooper, Bob Brass and Irwin Levine were unhappy with the uptempo arrangement of what was supposed to be an R&B song, claiming Gary Lewis & the Playboys removed the soul and “made a teenage milkshake out of it.” The song had been written for The Drifters, who passed on the opportunity to record it.

Quick trivia: Gary Lewis is the son of the comedian Jerry Lewis, who passed away in August at the age of 91.

Please check out the video of Gary Lewis & the Playboys performing “This Diamond Ring.” The clip is introduced by TV’s Batman, Adam West, who also died this year at the age of 88. The lyrics are below if you’d like to sing along…

“This Diamond Ring”
Written by Al Kooper, Bob Brass and Irwin Levine. Performed by Gary Lewis & the Playboys.

Who wants to buy this diamond ring?
She took it off her finger, now it doesn’t mean a thing
This diamond ring doesn’t shine for me anymore
And this diamond ring doesn’t mean what it meant before
So if you’ve got someone whose love is true
Let it shine for you

This stone is genuine like love should be
And if your baby’s truer than my baby was to me
This diamond ring can mean something beautiful
And this diamond ring can mean dreams that are coming true
And then your heart won’t have to break like mine did
If there’s love behind it

This diamond ring can mean something beautiful
And this diamond ring can mean dreams that are coming true
And then your heart won’t have to break like mine did
If there’s love behind it

This diamond ring doesn’t shine for me anymore
And this diamond ring doesn’t mean what it meant before
So then your heart won’t have to break like mine did
If there’s love behind it

Credit: Screen capture via

Baby Hippo Photobombs Marriage Proposal, Leaps from Local Inspiration to Internet Sensation

An adorable baby hippo at the Cincinnati Zoo became an internet sensation this week when she photobombed a surprise marriage proposal that was taking place just outside her tank. The Instagram post was so awesome that it was picked up by USA Today, Huffington Post, Fox News, US Weekly, E! News, the Daily Buzz and The Telegraph, among other outlets.

In the photo, we can see Fiona the Hippo peeking through the glass at the exact moment Nick Kelble popped the question to his girlfriend, Hayley Roll. credited Fiona with “perhaps the most wonderful photobomb of our time.”

“We went to the zoo for our one-year anniversary and Fiona was in the window,” Roll told the Daily Buzz. “Nick and I were waiting in line to get our photo taken with Fiona and I gave my cell phone to someone to take the photo. When I turned back around, Nick was on one knee proposing.”

The now-world-famous photo was posted by Roll with the caption, “We’re so happy Fiona could be there on our special day. Here’s to many more years of going to zoos with you.”

Fiona has been an inspiration to the Cincinnati community and a top attraction at the zoo since she was born six weeks premature in January of 2017. At birth, she weighed only 29 pounds, barely half that of a normal hippo. Developmentally delayed, and with the odds of survival stacked against her, Fiona battled day after day under the tender care of the zookeepers, who had to teach her to walk and to swim.

Her 10-month battle to become “the smallest hippo ever to survive” is documented on the animal’s own Facebook page, titled “The Fiona Show.” The page has 228,000 followers.

Roll told E! News that Fiona has played a special role in the couple’s relationship.

“Nick and I had been long distance for a while when we first started dating,” she told E! News. “Fiona was something we could talk about and obsess over together. We always kept up with her and still adore her. When we went to the zoo that day, it was pouring rain and we hardly saw any of the other animals. We just really wanted to meet Fiona for the first time!”

Not only did they get to meet Fiona, but the baby hippo also helped to make their marriage proposal story truly memorable. Yesterday, Roll returned to Instagram to post an important photo. Her caption: “Almost forgot to show insta my ring!!”

Credits: Images via Instagram/Haley Roll; Facebook/The Fiona Show.

Glistening With 4,517 Diamonds, World’s Most Valuable Handbag Is Up for Grabs

Reflecting 8,800 hours of meticulous craftsmanship by 10 artisans, “The Mouawad 1001 Nights Diamond Purse” incorporates 4,517 diamonds with a total weight of 381.92 carats. The one-of-a-kind masterpiece, which Guinness World Records certified in 2010 as the most valuable handbag in the world, will be offered by Christie’s via its “Private Sales” service.

In 2010, the bag was valued at $3.8 million. For this transaction, Christie’s will be brokering a deal between the seller and prospective high-net-worth buyers outside of the auction room.

Internationally acclaimed jeweler Robert Mouawad took his design inspiration from One Thousand and One Arabian Nights, a collection of the world’s most epic tales of romance, intrigue and fantasy. The resulting purse is a visual feast of white, yellow and pink diamonds set in 18-karat white and yellow gold.

The focal point of the heart-shaped bag is a 5.04-carat heart-shaped white diamond, framed by white tapered baguettes and accented by a burst of 15 pear-shaped fancy vivid pink diamonds.

Overall, The Mouawad 1001 Nights Diamond Purse boasts 333.84 carats of white round diamonds, 27.51 carats of white baguette diamonds, 7.66 carats of fancy vivid yellow diamonds and 7.89 carats of fancy vivid pink diamonds.

The bag just completed a four-day appearance at Christie’s Hong Kong. The tour will continue at Christie’s Geneva from November 9 -13 before returning to London.

Besides owning the record for the world’s most expensive handbag, Mouawad also created the world’s priciest bra. The “Very Sexy Fantasy Bra,” which was first revealed at a Victoria’s Secret fashion show in 2003, was blinged out with 2,800 gemstones, including diamonds, sapphires and amethysts. The total weight of the gems was 2,200 carats and the value of the bra was said to be $11 million.

Credits: Images courtesy of Christie’s.

Smithsonian Celebrates Special Anniversary by Revealing Replicas of the Hope Diamond’s Ancestors

More than 200 million visitors have marveled at the beauty and majesty of the Hope Diamond since jeweler Harry Winston donated it to the Smithsonian Institution in 1958. What most of those visitors don’t know is that the Hope bears a complicated, multinational lineage that connects it with the stolen French Blue and an earlier incarnation called the Tavernier.

On Friday, the Smithsonian celebrated the 20th anniversary of the Janet Annenburg Hooker Hall of Geology, Gems and Minerals — and its most popular exhibit — by revealing replicas of what the Hope Diamond looked like before it was the Hope.

“After many years of work, we have revealed some new insights into the Hope Diamond’s origins,” said Jeffrey Post, chair of the Department of Mineral Sciences and curator of the National Gem and Mineral Collection at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History. “With these remarkable replicas, we can now see the Hope Diamond as King Louis XIV saw it more than 300 years ago.”

The computer models, above, depict the history of the Hope Diamond, including (counterclockwise from top) the Tavernier, the French Blue and the Hope Diamond.

The cubic zirconia replicas are the result of a decade-long research project conducted by Post, in collaboration with Professor Francois Farges of the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, and renowned New York-based lapidary, John Hatleberg. Eventually, they will go on display alongside the genuine Hope Diamond.

Researchers believe the Hope Diamond’s origin can be traced back to 1642, with the discovery in India of a beautiful blue rough diamond. It was crudely finished and weighed 115 carats when it was purchased in 1666 by French merchant Jean Baptiste Tavernier, at which time it became known as the Tavernier Diamond.

French King Louis XIV bought the Tavernier Diamond in February 1669 and ordered it to be recut. The result was a 69-carat heart-shaped stone that would be known as the French Blue.

In 1792, the French Blue was stolen from the royal treasury in Paris. Its whereabouts remained unknown until a large blue diamond appeared in 1839 in the collection of Henry Philip Hope, a London banker and gem collector. Post and his associates are confident that the antique cushion-cut Hope Diamond, at 45.52 carats, is derived from the French Blue.

In 2009, a 17th century lead replica of the French Blue was discovered at the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle in Paris. It had been misfiled under the category of “lead specimens.” Scientists used computer modeling of the lead replica to simulate what the actual jewel looked like during the reign of Louis XIV.

“Because of the information that we have now, the technology that we have available to us and some skilled people, we can actually produce a replica for the first time that will show us what [the Tavernier Diamond], the French Blue diamond and, of course, the Hope Diamond look like side by side,” Post told

Credits: Hope Diamond photo by Chip Clark/Smithsonian Institution. Computer model creator Stephen Attaway, photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution. Lead replica photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.

17th Century Pink Diamond From the French Crown Jewels Hits the Auction Block at Christie’s Geneva in November

“Le Grand Mazarin,” the legendary 19.07-carat pink diamond that was once part of the French Crown Jewels, is expected to fetch between $6 million and $9 million at Christie’s Geneva on November 14.

The magnificent square-cut stone has been in the collection of four kings, four queens, two emperors and two empresses, starting with the Sun King, Louis XIV, in 1661. Le Grand Mazarin was one of the many treasures sold at the famous auction of the French Crown Jewels in 1887.

Christie’s Europe and Asia Chairman Francois Curiel called Le Grand Mazarin “the diamond with the most prestigious and historic provenance still to be in private hands.”

Sourced at the Golconda mines, on India’s Deccan plateau, Le Grand Mazarin is named for Cardinal Jules Mazarin, who served as the Chief Minister to Kings Louis XIII and Louis XIV. Toward the end of his life, Mazarin assembled a collection of 18 exceptional gems that were said to be among the most beautiful jewels on the continent. Many were purchased from the royal families of Europe.

Of the 18 gems, eight were square-cut diamonds, the largest of which was named Le Grand Mazarin. Mazarin’s collection became part of the French Crown Jewels and would remain in the possession of the French royal family for more than 225 years. Upon the cardinal’s death in 1661, Le Grand Mazarin was bequeathed to King Louis XIV. At the time, the French ruler was just 23 years old.

The first person to wear Le Grand Mazarin was likely Louis’ wife, Maria Theresa of Austria. According to Christie’s, after Maria Theresa’s death, Louis XIV added the Grand Mazarin to his “chain of diamonds,” set in descending size order, on which it remained for many years.

In the late 1700s, 30 men broke into the royal treasury at the Garde-Meuble in Paris and stole the French Crown Jewels, including Le Grand Mazarin. Most of the thieves were eventually caught and sentenced to death, but their spoils were never recovered. One thief, however, begged to be spared. His portion of the spoils included Le Grand Mazarin and, in exchange for his life, he promised to return Le Grand Mazarin to the French authorities.

In 1810, Emperor Napoleon ordered jeweler François-Regnault Nitot to create a magnificent set of diamond jewelry for his wife, Marie-Louise. The set included a crown, diadem, necklace, comb, earrings, bracelets, belt and more. The diadem was set with the most beautiful of the crown diamonds, including Le Grand Mazarin.

Prestigious French jeweler Frédéric BoucheronIn purchased Le Grand Mazarin during the famous sale of the French Crown Jewels in May of 1887.

In 1962, the Louvre sponsored a presentation of the most important jewels ever produced in France. Listed as item #22 of the exhibition was Le Grand Mazarin. The gem would remain out of the public spotlight for the next 55 years.

Le Grand Mazarin just completed a two-day exhibition at Christie’s London and will be seen next at Christie’s New York on November 6 and 7. The gem returns to Geneva for a pre-sale exhibition starting November 9 at the Four Seasons Hotel des Bergues. Le Grand Mazarin will be offered for sale during Christie’s Magnificent Jewels auction in Geneva on the evening of November 14.

Credits: Gem images courtesy of Christie’s. Portrait of Cardinal Jules Mazarin by Pierre Mignard [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.

Music Friday: ‘Diamond Ring’ Tells the World ‘I’m Your Only Man,’ Sings Jon Bon Jovi

Welcome to Music Friday when we bring you outstanding songs with jewelry, gemstones or precious metals in the lyrics or title. Today, Jon Bon Jovi and Richie Sambora perform a beautiful acoustic version of “Diamond Ring,” a ballad they co-wrote with Desmond Child in 1988.

Featuring romantic lyrics, soaring harmonies and a memorable acoustic guitar solo by Sambora, “Diamond Ring” tells the story of a man who is head-over-heels in love and wants the world to know. The song’s title symbolizes the ultimate commitment from a man who wants to be her “everything.”

They sing, “Diamond ring, wear it on your hand / It’s gonna tell the world, I’m your only man / Diamond ring, diamond ring / Baby, you’re my everything, diamond ring.”

During a 1995 concert, Bon Jovi told fans that “Diamond Ring” was one of his favorite collaborations with Sambora, but also recounted how it was the only song the duo ever “rewrote and rewrote and rewrote.” “Diamond Ring” was originally intended to be released on the group’s 1988 album New Jersey, but didn’t quite make it. Then it was reworked and recorded to appear on 1992’s Keep the Faith. Again, it didn’t quite make it. Finally, the song was perfected and released as the 14th track of 1995’s These Days.

Despite its official release in 1995, “Diamond Ring” was played live six times during Bon Jovi’s “New Jersey Syndicate Tour,” which ran from October 1988 to February 1990.

Many critics and fans believe These Days is Bon Jovi’s best album. It charted in 21 countries, including #1 spots in Australia, Austria, Canada, the Netherlands, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Japan, Portugal, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The album sold more than one million copies in the U.S., peaking at #9 on the Billboard 200 album chart.

Bon Jovi formed the group that bears his name in 1983. Over the past 34-plus years, Bon Jovi has sold more than 100 million records and performed more than 2,700 concerts in 50 countries. Bon Jovi and Sambora were inducted into Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2009.

Please check out Bon Jovi and Sambora wowing a live audience during an inspired performance of “Diamond Ring.” The lyrics are below if you’d like to sing along…

“Diamond Ring”
Written by Jon Bon Jovi, Desmond Child and Richard Sambora. Performed by Jon Bon Jovi and Richard Sambora.

Diamond ring, wear it on your hand
It’s gonna tell the world, I’m your only man
Diamond ring, diamond ring
Baby, you’re my everything, diamond ring

Red, red rose brought it home to you
Blood red rose, tells me that you’re true
Red, red rose, blood-red rose
Like a fire inside that grows, blood-red rose

When you’re hungry, I will fill you up
When you’re thirsty, drink out of my loving cup
When you’re crying, I’ll be the tears for you
There’s nothing that I wouldn’t do for you

When you’re hungry, I will fill you up
When you’re thirsty, drink out of my loving cup
When you’re crying, I’ll be the tears for you
There’s nothing that I wouldn’t do for you

You know, I bleed every night you sleep
‘Cause I don’t know if I’m in your dreams
I want to be your everything…

Diamond ring, wear it on your hand
It’s gonna tell the world, I’m your only man
Diamond ring, diamond ring
Baby, you’re my everything, diamond ring
Darling, you’re my everything, diamond ring
Now, you’ve got me on your string… Diamond ring

Credit: Screen capture via

Couple Loses Home to California Wildfires, But Finds Precious Symbols of Hope Under the Charred Rubble

Kris Pond cried uncontrollably as she surveyed the still-smoking rubble on the property where her home once stood. Her Santa Rosa residence was one of nearly 6,000 obliterated by the catastrophic wildfires that have been tearing through Northern California since October 8.

An ABC News crew caught up with Pond and her husband, Mike, as they searched the ashes for her most beloved possession — a diamond engagement ring.

Despite the dangerous conditions, reporter Matt Gutman assisted the couple for more than an hour in what he termed an “exhaustive archaeological dig.” Her shoes melted and the reporter’s hands burned, but still they came up empty.

Gutman filed his heartbreaking report about the couple, but then was surprised to get a call from a cheerful Mike the next day.

Kris and Mike hadn’t given up their search. They had returned to the site and found not only the elusive engagement ring, but also a second diamond ring that had been gifted to them by an uncle.

Gutman was able to deliver the good news during his in-depth followup report for ABC’s Nightline.

The Ponds told ABC News that they are thankful for the help and kindness they have received during this difficult time. What’s more, the unlikely discovery of the diamond rings offered a much-needed symbol of hope as they look to rebuild their lives.

The Northern California wildfires are some of the deadliest in California’s history. More than 40 lives have been lost and 30,000 people are still evacuated from their homes.

Credits: Screen captures via

Astronomers Witness the Birth of $100 Octillion Worth of Gold as Neutron Stars Collide in Space

Thousands of astronomers from around the globe joined together on Monday to confirm the first-ever sighting of two neutron stars colliding in space. In just one second, the “kilonova” generated the equivalent of 50 Earth masses of silver, 100 Earth masses of gold and 500 Earth masses of platinum.

The gold alone is estimated to be worth more than $100 octillion. That’s $100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (1 followed by 29 zeroes).

The collision, which was detected on August 17, settles the long-standing mystery of how rare precious metals and other “heavy” elements are formed.

“We already knew that iron came from a stellar explosion, the calcium in your bones came from stars, and now we know the gold in your wedding ring came from merging neutron stars,” University of California Santa Cruz’s Ryan Foley told the Associated Press.

Scientists described a scenario in which two ultra-dense neutron stars spiral around each other, moving closer and closer, until they eventually merge in a violent eruption. The material blasted into space contains a variety of heavy elements that are formed through a chain of nuclear reactions know as the “r-process.”

After the first detection, astronomers from around the world were alerted and each of them pointed telescopes at the scene to record the visible light, radio waves, X-rays and gamma rays. Their equipment identified massive amounts of platinum, gold and silver.

“You smash these two things together at one-third the speed of light, and that’s how you make gold,” Duncan Brown, an astronomer at Syracuse University and a member of the research collaboration, told Business Insider.

The smashup took place 130 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Hydra.

Scientists had postulated for years that precious metals were likely forged by the clash of neutron stars, which are the ultra-dense cores of aged stars. A single teaspoon of this neutron-rich material is estimated to weigh roughly one billion tons.

In the two months following the neutron star collision, astronomers from around the world teamed up to make sense of the event, which some have called the “discovery of the century.” The resulting research study lists 4,000 authors representing 910 institutions.

Scientists believe that neutron star mergers in our galaxy take place about once every 100,000 years. Because astronomers worldwide are listening to millions of galaxies, they expect to identify a few spectacular collisions per year.

Credit: Image by Robin Dienel/Carnegie Institution for Science.